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Advisory Councils that Preceded the Board

Prior to passage of the Social Security Act signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 14, 1935, the original Social Security Advisory Council met in 1934 to advise the Committee on Economic Security (CES), which was charged with designing a Social Security system for the United States.

While the Advisory Council of 1934 was the first, the Council of 1937-1938 firmly established the precedent of periodic outside Advisory Councils providing guidance to Social Security's policymakers.  The following excerpt from the 1971 Advisory Council explains the evolution of the Councils[1]:

There is a long tradition, beginning even prior to enactment of the Social Security Act, of seeking the advice and guidance of private citizens in the planning and development of the social security program.  In 1934, President Roosevelt named a 23-member Advisory Council, representing labor, industry, and the public, to advise the Committee on Economic Security (a Cabinet Committee established to study various proposals to develop recommendations for a national social security program).  The Social Security Act was adopted in large part as a result of the recommendations of the Committee on Economic Security.

The many improvements that have been made in the social security program over the years have been based in great part on the studies and recommendations made by successive advisory groups.  Shortly after the social security system began operating—in fact, before any monthly benefit payments had been made—the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance appointed a Special Committee on Social Security.  The Special Committee was directed to cooperate with the Social Security Board, the agency established in 1935 to administer the social security program, in studying possible methods of making the program fully effective sooner than was contemplated under the 1935 law.  To assist in this study, in May 1937 an Advisory Council was appointed jointly by the Senate Special Committee on Social Security and the Social Security Board.  Many of the recommendations of this Council became law in the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act.

Again in 1947, when few fundamental changes in the program had been made for many years, and when the crucial issue was whether, in the public sector, major reliance was placed on social security or on a combination of other approaches to providing retirement income (such as a broad public pension program or public assistance), an Advisory Council was appointed to assist the Committee on Finance in an investigation of the various programs provided for under the Social Security Act.  Many of the recommendations of this Council were included in the 1950 amendments to the Social Security Act—amendments that made clear the conviction of Congress that social insurance is a preferable method of providing economic security for those whose income from work has stopped.  Almost all of the recommendations of the Council have now become law.  In 1953 a group of 12 consultants from outside of Government was asked to make proposals for extending social security to workers then excluded from the program.  Most of the recommendations of this group were reflected in the 1954 and 1956 changes made in the Social Security Act.

In recognition of the outstanding contributions made by advisory councils over the years, the Congress provided in 1956 for the periodic appointment of advisory councils to review the status of the trust funds in relation to the long-term commitments of the program.  The second of the councils provided for by these amendments was required, in addition, to make recommendations with respect to extensions of coverage, of the adequacy of benefits, and all other aspects of the program; and many of the recommendations of this Council were enacted into law in 1965.  Under the Social Security Amendments of 1967[2], the schedule for appointing future councils was revised so that one was to be appointed in 1969 and one in every fourth year thereafter.  Each of these councils will have the broad responsibility of reviewing all aspects of the social security program, including its impact on public assistance programs.

Although the provision creating the Advisory Councils was repealed under the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994, the important work of these Councils continues today through the permanent Social Security Advisory Board.[3]

 

Below is a list of all the Advisory Councils that preceded the Board with pictures, who they were appointed by, purpose, members, and members’ occupations at time of appointment, when available.[4]

 

1934 Committee on Economic Security (CES) – Not an official Advisory Council

Appointed By: President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Purpose: Design a Social Security program, which resulted in the creation of the Social Security system.

Members: The CES was comprised of five cabinet-level officials, chaired by FDR's Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins.  The other members were Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr.; Attorney General Homer S. Cummings; Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace; and Harry L. Hopkins, the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator. The CES was staffed by a Technical Board of 21 government experts drawn from various federal agencies.

 

1934 Advisory Council

Appointed By: President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Purpose: Advise the Committee on Economic Security (CES).

Members: Frank P. Graham (Chairman), President of University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Paul Kellogg, Editor of The Survey; Gerald Swope, President of General Electric Company; Morris E. Leeds, President of Leeds and Northrup; Sam Lewisohn, Vice President of Miami Copper Company; Walter C. Teagle, President of Standard Oil Company; Marion B. Folsom, Assistant Treasurer of Eastman Kodak Company, William Green, President of American Federation of Labor; George M. Harrison, President of Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks; Paul Scharrenber, Secretary Treasurer of California State Federation of Labor; Henry Ohl, Jr., President of Wisconsin State Federation of Labor; Belle Sherwin, Former President of National League of Women Voters; Grace Abbott, Former Chief of United States Children’s Bureau; Raymond Moley, Editor of Today and Former Assistant Secretary of State; George H. Nordlin, Chairman of Grand Trustees the Fraternal Order of Eagles; George Berry, President of International Printing Pressmen and Assistant’s Union; John G. Winant, Governor of New Hampshire; Mary Dewson, From National Consumers League; Louis J. Taber, Master of National Grange; John A. Ryan, From National Catholic Welfare Conference; Helen Hall, President of National Federation of Settlements and Director of the Henry Street Settlement; Joel D. Hunter, General Superintendent of United Charities of Chicago; Elizabeth Morrissey, From Notre Dame College.

    

1937-1938 Advisory Council


Appointed By: U.S. Senate Special Committee on Social Security and the Social Security Board

Purpose: Study the advisability of amending the Social Security Act, which resulted in the major 1939 Amendments.

Members: J. Douglas Brown, From Princeton University (Chairman); Lee Pressman, General Counsel for Congress of Industrial Organizations (served as an alternate for Sidney Hillman); Sidney Hillman, President of Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America; William Haber, From University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; A.H. Mowbray, From University of California, Berkeley; Henry Bruere, President of The Bowery Savings Bank; Alvin H. Hansen, From Harvard University; Jay Iglauer, Vice President and Treasurer of Halle Brothers Company; Marion B. Folsom, Treasurer of Eastman Kodak Company; M. Albert Linton, President of Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company; T.L. Norton, From University of Buffalo; Theresa McMahon, From University of Washington; G.M. Bugniazet, Secretary of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers of America and President of Union Cooperative Insurance Association; Matthew Woll, President of International Photo Engravers’ Union of North America; Paul H. Douglas, From University of Chicago; Harvey Fremming, President of Oil Field, Gas Well and Refinery Workers International Union; John P. Frey, President of Metal Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor; Walter D. Fuller, President of Curtis Publishing Company; Gerald Morgan, From Hyde Park, New York; Philip Murray, Vice President of United Mine Workers of America; Josephine A. Roche, From Rocky Mountain Fuel Company (replacement for Lucy R. Mason who resigned); Lucy R. Mason, General Secretary of National Consumers’ League; E.R. Stettinius, Jr., Chairmen of the Board of United States Steel Corporation; George W. Stocking, From University of Texas; Gerard Swope, President of General Electric Company; Elizabeth Wisner, Former President of Association of Schools of Social Work; Edwin E. Witte, From University of Wisconsin.

 

1948-1949 Advisory Council


Appointed By: U.S. Senate Committee on Finance

Purpose: Provide a comprehensive review of Social Security, which resulted in the major 1950 Amendments.

Members: Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. (Chairman), Rector at University of Virginia; Florency R. Sabin, Scientist; Malcolm Bryan, Vice Chairman of Board of Trust Company of Georgia; Eugene D. Millikin, Senator from Colorado; Mary H. Donlon, Chairman of New York State Workmen’s Compensation Board; Sumner H. Slichter, Lamont University Professor and Associate Chairman of Harvard University; M. Albert Linton, President of Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company; Adrien J. Falk, President of S. & W. Fine Foods Incorporated; J. Douglas Brown, Dean of Faculty at Princeton University; Robert M. Ball, Staff Director and Assistant Director of Committee on Education and Social Security; Ernest C. Young, Dean of Purdue University Graduate School; John Miller, Assistant Director of National Planning Association; S. Abbot Smith, President of Thomas Strahan Company; Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director of Social-Insurance Activities at American Federation of Labor; Emil Rieve, President of Textile Workers’ Union and Vice President of Congress of Industrial Organizations; Delos Walker, Vice President of R.H. Macy & Company; Marion B. Folsom, Treasurer of Eastman Kodak Company; Frank Bane, Executive Director of Council of State Governments; William I. Meyers, Dean of New York State College of Agriculture.

 

1953 Consultants on Social Security

Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Oveta Culp Hobby

Purpose: Study an extension of Social Security coverage.

Members: Reinhard A. Hohaus (Chairman), Vice President and Chief Actuary of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Thomas H. Beacom, Vice President in Charge of Trusts at First National Bank of Chicago; Eveline M. Burns, Economist and Professor of Social Work at New York School of Social Work at Columbia University; Robert P. Burroughs, President and Treasurer of R.P. Burroughs Company Pension and Profit Sharing Plans; Leonard J. Calhoun, Attorney at Law; Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director of Social Insurance Activities at American Federation of Labor; Wallis B. Dunckel, Vice President of Bankers Trust Company; Loula Dunn, Director of American Public Welfare Association; Katherine Ellickson, Secretary of Social Security Committee at Congress of Industrial Organizations; Hugh F. Hall, From American Farm Bureau Federation; Lloyd C. Halvorson, From The National Grange; A.D. Marshall, Manger of Employee Benefits at General Electric Company.

 

1957-1958 Advisory Council on Social Security Financing


Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Marion B. Folsom as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1956 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Review the financial soundness of the Social Security program.

Members: Charles I. Schottland (Chairman), Commissioner of Social Security; Joseph W. Childs, Vice President of United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America; Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director of Department of Social Security at American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations; Reinhard A. Hohaus, Vice President and Chief Actuary of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; J. Douglas Brown, Dean of Faculty at Princeton University; Marion B. Folsom, Secretary of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Carl H. Fischer, Professor of Actuarial Mathematics and Insurance at University of Michigan; Malcolm Bryan, President of Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; Robert A. Hornby, President of Pacific Lighting Corporation; T. Norman Hurd, Professor of Agricultural Economics at Cornell University; Elliott V. Bell, Chairmen of Executive Committee at McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Incorporated; Arthur F. Burns, President of National Bureau of Economic Research Incorporated; R. McAllister Lloyd, Chairman of Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America; Eric Peterson, General Secretary-Treasurer of International Association of Machinists.

 

 

historical perspectives

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Historical Perspective: 1963 Letter from Former Commissioner Ball

Description: The following document was written by former Social Security Commissioner Robert Ball in 1963 summarizing the history and purpose of Advisory Councils in the Social Security system.[5]

Click here to view the 1963 Letter from Former Commissioner Ball.

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1963-1964 Advisory Council


 

Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Anthony Celebrezze as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1956 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Review Social Security finances and all other aspects of the program.  The Council recommended Medicare and an extension of disability to younger workers (Medicare was already on the verge of adoption at the time of the report).

Members: Robert M. Ball (Chairman), Commissioner of Social Security; Nelson H. Cruikshank, Director of Department of Social Security at American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations; Loula F. Dunn, Director of American Public Welfare Association; Marion B. Folsom, Director and Former Treasurer of Eastman Kodak Company; J. Douglas Brown, Dean of Faculty at Princeton University; Gordon M. Freeman, President of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Herman M. Somers, Professor of Politics and Public Affairs at Princeton University; Leonard Woodcock, Vice President of United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America; Reinhard A. Hohaus, Director of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and Fellow at Society of Actuaries; Arthur Larson, Director of Rule of Law Research Center at Duke University; James P. Dixon, President of Antioch College; John C. Virden, Chairman of the Board at Eaton Manufacturing Company; Kenneth W. Clement, Practicing Physician and Former President of National Medical Association.

 

1965-1974 Health Insurance Benefits Advisory Council


Appointed By: President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1965 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Advise on health insurance benefits policy and administration.  The Council issued annual reports on the Medicare program.

Members: Kermit Gordon (Chairman); Dr. Russell A. Nelson; The Very Rev. Msgr. Harrold A. Murray; Dr. Jose A. Garcia; Dr. Caldwell B. Esselstyn; C. Manton Eddy; Nelson H. Cruikshank; Dorothy Cornelius, R.N.; Dr. Kenneth W. Clement; Dr. Bernard Bucove; Dr. Howard P. Rome; William E. Beaumont, Jr.; Dr. Carroll L. Witten; Dr. Ray E. Trussell; Nathan Stark; Dr. Samuel R. Sherman.  Robert M. Ball and Arthur E. Hess represent the Social Security Administration at meetings, but are not members of the Council.

 

1968 Advisory Council on Health Insurance for the Disabled


Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Wilbur Cohen as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1956 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study an extension of Medicare for the disabled.  The Council advocated extending Medicare to the disabled, which was eventually adopted.

Members: Henry H. Kessler (Chairman), Director of Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation in Newark, N.J.; Morris Brand, Medical Director of Sidney Hillman Health Center; James Brindle, President of Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York; James M. Gillen, Director of Personnel Research at General Motors Corporation; Juanita M. Kreps, Professor of Economics at Duke University; Leonard W. Larson, Former President of American Medical Association; Daniel W. Pettengill, Vice President of Group Division at Aetna Life & Casualty Company; Bert Seidman, Director of Department of Social Security at AFL-CIO; E.A. Vaughn, Vice President and Controller at Aluminum Company of America; Anthony G. Weinlein, Executive Assistant to President of Service Employees International Union at AFL-CIO; E.B. Whitten, Executive Director of National Rehabilitation Association; Alonzo S. Yerby, Professor and Head of Department of Health Services Administration at School of Public Health at Harvard University.

 

1969-1971 Advisory Council


Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Robert H. Finch as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Social Security system.  The Council recommended changes in actuarial estimates, which led to the 1972 Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) increases.

Members: Arthur S. Flemming (Chairman), President of Macalester College and Former Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare; Bertha S. Adkins, Former Under Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare; J. Douglas Brown, Dean of the Faculty, Emeritus, at Princeton University; Walter J. Burke, Secretary-Treasurer of United Steelworkers of America and Vice President of Industrial Union Department at AFL-CIO; Kermit Gordon, President of Brookings Institution and Former Director of Budget Bureau; Gabriel Hauge, President of Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company and Former Special Assistant on Economic Affairs to President Eisenhower; Lee W. Minton, President of Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of United States and Canada at AFL-CIO and Executive Council Member at AFL-CIO; Thruston B. Morton, Former United States Senator from Kentucky; Bert Seidman, Director of Department of Social Security at AFL-CIO; Charles A. Siegfried, President of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and Director of Society of Actuaries; Robert C. Tyson, Chairman of Finance Committee at United States Steel Corporation and Chairman of Tax Foundation Incorporated; Dwight L. Wilbur, President of American Medical Association and Clinical Professor of Medicine at Stanford University; Whitney M. Young, Jr., Executive Director of National Urban League and Former President of National Conference on Social Welfare.

 

1974-1975 Advisory Council


Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Caspar W. Weinberger as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Social Security system.

Members: W. Allen Wallis (Chairman), Chancellor of University of Rochester and Former Special Assistant to President Eisenhower; Stanford D. Arnold, Secretary-Treasurer of Michigan State Building and Construction Trades Council at AFL-CIO; John W. Byrnes, Attorney and Former United States Representative from Wisconsin; Rita R. Campbell, Senior Fellow at Hoover Institution at Stanford University and Member of President’s Commission on Health Service Industry; Edward J. Cleary, Secretary-Treasurer of Building and Construction Trades Council of Greater New York at AFL-CIO; Rudolph P. Danstedt, Assistant to President of National Council of Senior Citizens; Edwin J. Faulkner, President of Woodmen Accident and Life Company; Jerome Van Gorkom, President of Trans-Union Corporation; Vernon Jordan, Executive Director of National Urban League; Elizabeth Norwood, Assistant Research Director at Eastern Conference of Teamsters; John J. Scanlon, Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer of American Telephone and Telegraph Company; J. Henry Smith, Chairman of Board at Equitable Life Assurance Society; Arnold R. Weber, Dean of Graduate School of Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University and Former Assistant Secretary of Department of Labor.

 

1978-1979 Advisory Council and Panel of Consultants

Appointed By: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Joseph Califano as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Social Security system.

Members: Henry J. Aaron (Chairman), Senior Fellow at Brookings Institution; Gardner Ackley, Professor of Political Economy at University of Michigan; Robert M. Ball, Senior Scholar at National Academy of Sciences; Eveline M. Burns, Professor Emeritus of Social Work at Columbia University; Grace Montanez Davis, Deputy Mayor of City of Los Angeles; Mary C. Falvey, Senior Vice President and Director of Blyth Eastman Dillon & Company; Melvin A. Glasser, Director of Social Security Department at United Auto Workers; Velma M. Hill, Vice President of American Federation of Teachers; Morton D. Miller, Vice Chairman of Board at Equitable Life Assurance Society; Joseph A. Pechman, Director of Economic Studies Program at Brookings Institution; Jane C. Pfeiffer, Former Vice President of Communications at IBM (resigned); John W. Porter, President of Eastern Michigan University; Stanford G. Ross[6], Attorney at Caplin and Drysdale (resigned to become Commissioner of Social Security); Bert Seidman, Director of Department of Social Security at AFL-CIO; J.W. Van Gorkom, Chairman of Board at Trans Union Corporation.

 

1981 National Commission on Social Security – Not an official Advisory Council

Appointed By: U.S. Congress through the 1977 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Social Security system.  This was the first time that a Commission composed entirely of private citizens had been chartered by Congress to do such a study.

Members: Milton Gwirtzman (Chairman), Attorney and Author; James J. Dillman (Vice-Chairman), Attorney at Dillman, Holbrook, Wurtz & Roth; Elizabeth T. Duskin (Vice-Chairman), Director of Research and Legislation at National Council of Senior Citizens; Wilbur J. Cohen, Sid Richardson Professor of Public Affairs at Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs at University of Texas at Austin; Russell W. Laxson, Former Vice-President of Public Affairs at Honeywell Incorporated; Donald S. MacNaughton, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer at Hospital Corporation of America; Joyce D. Miller, Vice-President and Director of Social Services at Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and Member of Executive Council at AFL-CIO; Robert J. Myers, Professor of Insurance at Howard University and Chief Actuary at Social Security Administration; David H. Rodgers, Chief Deputy Insurance Commissioner for State of Washington.

 

1982-1984 Advisory Council

Appointed By: Secretary of Health and Human Services Richard Schweiker as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Medicare system.

Members: Otis R. Bowen (Chairman), Former Governor of Indiana; Richard W. Rahn, Vice President and Chief Economist at Chamber of Commerce of United States; James D. (Mike) McKevitt, Director of Federal Legislation at National Federation of Independent Business; Stanford D. Arnold, Secretary-Treasurer of Michigan Building and Construction Trades Council at AFL-CIO; Carlos J. Arboleya, President, Chief Operating Officer and Director of Consolidated Barnett Banks of Miami; Karl D. Bays, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and Director of American Hospital Supply Corporation; Kenneth M. McCaffree, Former Professor of Economics at University of Washington; Samuel H. Howard, Vice President and Treasurer of Hospital Corporation of America; Linda H. Aiken, Vice President for Research at Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; David W. Christopher, Partner In Charge of Pittsburgh Office at Price Waterhouse and Company; C. Joseph Stetler, From Law Firm of Dickstein, Shapiro, and Morin; James Balog, Senior Executive Vice President at Drexel, Burnham and Lambert; Alvin E. Heaps, President of Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Unions.

 

1982-1983 National Commission on Social Security Reform – Not an official Advisory Council


Appointed By: President Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Congress

Purpose: Study Social Security financing issues, which resulted in the major 1983 Amendments.

Members: Members appointed by President Ronald Reagan include: Alan Greenspan (Chairman), Chairman and President of Townsend-Greenspan and Company; Robert A. Beck, Chairman of Board and Chief Executive Officer of Prudential Insurance Company of America; Mary Falvey Fuller, Management Consultant; Alexander B. Trowbridge, President of National Association of Manufacturers; Joe D. Waggonner, Jr., Consultant at Bossier Bank and Trust Company.  Members appointed by the Majority Leader of the Senate, Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. (R., TN), in consultation with the Minority Leader, Senator Robert C. Byrd (D., WV), include: William Armstrong, United States Senator from Colorado; Robert Dole, United States Senator from Kansas; John Heinz, United States Senator from Pennsylvania; Lane Kirkland, President of American Federation of Labor at Congress ofof Industrial Organizations; Daniel Patrick Moynihan, United States Senator from New York.  Members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Representative James Claude Wright, Jr. (D., TX), in consultation with the Minority leader, Representative Henry Robert Michel (R., IL), include: William Archer, United States Representative from Texas; Robert M. Ball, Visiting Scholar at Center for Study of Social Policy; Barber Conable, United States Representative from New York; Martha E. Keys[7], Director of Education Programs at Association of Former Members of Congress; Claude D. Pepper, United States Representative from Florida.

 

1984 Congressional Panel on Social Security Organization – Not an official Advisory Council

Appointed By: Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Ways and Means Committee Dan Rostenkowski (D, Il) and Chairman of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee Bob Dole (R, KS) as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1983 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Formulate a plan to create a separate Social Security agency.

Members: Elmer Staats (Chair), Former Comptroller General of United States; Martha Derthick, From University of Virginia; Arthur Hess, Former Acting Commissioner of Social Security.

 

1988 Advisory Council

Appointed By: Secretary of Health and Human Services Otis Bowen as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study the Social Security disability program.

Members: John E. Affeldt (Chairman), Medical Advisor for Beverly Enterprises; David M. Cooney, President and CEO of Goodwill Industries Incorporated; Ronald W. Drach, National Employment Director at Disabled American Veterans; Martin H. Gerry, From Martin H. Gerry Company; George W. Lehr, Executive Director of Central States, Southeast and Southwest Areas of Health and Pension Funds of Teamsters Union (resigned); Stuart L. Lerner, President of Liberty Life Assurance Company of Boston; Gregory H. Moses, Jr., Partner and Chairman of Coopers and Lybrand’s National Health Care Industry Program; Robert N. Smith, Consultant and Former Assistant Secretary of Defense; Mitchell W. Spellman, Dean of Medical Services at Harvard Medical School and Executive Vice President of Harvard Medical Center; Guy Stubblefield, National Coordinator of Demonstration Programs for Disabled Workers International Association of Machinists; Susan S. Suter, Director of Illinois Department of Rehabilitation Services; Sharon L. Thralls, Form President of Junior League of Pasadena; Carolyn L. Weaver[8], Editor of Regulation Magazine.

 

1991 Advisory Council

Appointed By: Secretary of Health and Human Services Louis Sullivan as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study all aspects of the Social Security system.

Members: Deborah Steelman (Chair), From Epstein, Becker & Green; G. Lawrence Atkins, Director of Employee Benefits Policy at Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts; Robert M. Ball, Former Commissioner of Social Security; Philip Briggs, Vice Chairman of Board at Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Lonnie R. Bristow, From AMA Board of Trustees; Theodore Cooper, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Upjohn Company; John T. Dunlop, Professor at Harvard University; Karen Ignagni, Director of Employee Benefits at Department of Occupational Safety, Health and Social Security at AFL-CIO; James R. Jones, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of American Stock Exchange; Paul H. O’Neill, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Alcoa; A.L. Singleton[9], Consultant; John J. Sweeney, International President of Service Employees International Union; Donald C. Wegmiller, President and Chief Executive Officer of Health One Corporation.

 

1994-1996 Advisory Council

Appointed By: Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna Shalala as mandated by the U.S. Congress through the 1968 Social Security Amendments

Purpose: Study Social Security financing issues.

Members: Edward Gramlich (Chair), From University of Michigan; Robert M. Ball, Consultant; Joan T. Bok, From New England Electric System; Ann L. Combs, From William M. Mercer Incorporated; Edith U. Fierst, From Fierst & Moss; Gloria T. Johnson, From International Union of Electronic, Electrical, Salaried, Machine & Furniture Workers; Thomas W. Jones, From Teachers Insurance & Annuity Association/College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA/CREF); George J. Kourpias, From International Association of Machinists & Aerospace Workers; Sylvester J. Schieber[10], From Watson Wyatt Worldwide Company; Gerald M. Shea[11], From AFL-CIO; Marc M. Twinney, Jr., From Ford Motor Company; Fidel A. Vargas, From City of Baldwin Park, California; Carolyn L. Weaver[12], From American Enterprise Institute.

 

March 31, 1995 – First Members of the Permanent Social Security Advisory Board (SSAB) Appointed

 

 


[1] This excerpt borrows heavily from a draft document titled “Social Security Advisory Councils” written by former Social Security Commissioner Robert Ball, which is included on this page in a box titled "Historical Perspective".

[2] Throughout this page, the 1967 Amendments will be referred to as the 1968 Amendments because they were signed into law on January 2, 1968.

[3] Specifically, Section 706 of the Social Security Act was repealed by Section 108(a)(2) of Public Law 103-296, 108 STAT. 1481, which states: “(2) Section 706 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 907) is repealed.  This paragraph shall not apply with respect to the Advisory Council for Social Security appointed in 1994”.

[4] Dates of various Councils are somewhat imprecise and are sometimes given as slightly different from the dates shown here.  Some Councils were known by the date they were established, some by the date of their major reports, and some Councils were actually formed in years other than their mandated time period.  This report uses the dates most commonly used for the various Councils, even though this produces some inconsistencies in usage.

[5] The previous excerpt from the 1971 Advisory Council borrowed heavily from this document.

[6] Social Security Advisory Board member: 10/97-09/02 (Chair 1997-2002).

[7] Social Security Advisory Board member: 11/94-09/05.

[8] Social Security Advisory Board member: 10/94 – 09/97.

[9] Social Security Advisory Board member: 11/94-10/96.

[10] Social Security Advisory Board member: 01/98-09/09 (Chair 2006-2009).

[11] Social Security Advisory Board member: 01/96-11/97 and 10/00-09/04.

[12] Social Security Advisory Board member: 10/94-09/97.